• Healthy gingiva can be graded as PD 0
    Periodontal disease is graded:
  • Stage 1 (PD 1) (gingivitis) appears as a redness of the gingiva with no attachment loss.
  • Stage 2 (PD 2) (early periodontitis) shows an increase in inflammation and edema. In stage 2 there will be less than 25% of support loss when probed.
  • Stage 3 (PD 3) (moderate periodontitis) occurs when there is a moderate loss of attachment or moderate pocket formation with between 25-50% support loss. Furcation exposure and mobility may be present. The gingiva will bleed upon gentle probing at this stage.
  • Stage 4 (PD 4) (advanced periodontitis) occurs when there is breakdown of the support tissues with severe (>50% support loss) pocket depth or recession of the gingiva.

Click on any image below to see a larger view

NORMAL GINGIVA (PD 0)
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Canine
 
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Feline
 

GINGIVITIS (PD 1) - INFLAMMATION ONLY NO SUPPORT LOSS
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Canine
 
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Feline
 

EARLY PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD 2) <25% SUPPORT LOSS
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Periodontal probe showing <25% support loss
 
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Radiograph with probe inserted
 
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Feline maxillary fourth premolar
 

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Radiograph of the feline mandibular molar showing early periodontal disease
 

MODERATE PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD 3) 25-50% SUPPORT LOSS
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Canine
 
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Mandibular fourth premolar
 
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Feline maxillary fourth premolar
 

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Radiograph of the mandibular molar showing moderate periodontal disease
 

ADVANCED PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD 4) >50% SUPPORT LOSS
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Periodontal fistula
 
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9mm attachment loss (gingival recession)
 
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Feline gingival recession
 

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Supereruption (extrusion) of the left mandibular canine
 
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Feline alveolar bone expansion
 
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Radiograph of feline alveolar bone expansion
 

FURCATION INVOLVEMENT AND EXPOSURE
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Grade 1 (F1) furcation involvement
 
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In grade 1 the periodontal probe just enters the furcation
 
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Grade 1 (F1) and grade 2 (F2) furcation involvement
 

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Grade 3 (F3) furcation exposure
 
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In grade 3 furcation exposures the periodontal probe advances "through and through"
 

GINGIVAL RECESSION (GR)
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Canine maxillary fourth premolar/first molar
 
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Feline mandibular molar
 

GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA (GH)
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Canine maxillary fourth premolar
 
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Boxer's mandibular incisors covered with hyperplastic gingiva
 

MUCOGINGIVAL DEFECTS
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Dehiscence - partial root
 
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Dehiscence - complete root
 
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Cleft
 

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Fenestration
 

PERIODONTAL DISEASE/STOMATITIS

PALATAL POCKET
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10mm feline palatal defect
 
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10mm canine palatal defect
 

ORONASAL FISTULA (ONF)
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View into nasal cavity space where maxillary canine resided
 

CANINE STOMATITIS (ST/CU)
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Canine ulcerative paradental stomatitis (CUPS. kissing lesions)
 
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Maxilla
 
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Maxillary buccal teeth and gingiva affected
 

FELINE GINGIVOSTOMATITIS (ST/FFS)
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Proliferative inflammation of the caudal oral mucosa
 
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Gingivostomatitis inflammation surrounding maxillary cheek teeth
 
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Gingivostomatitis and faucitis
 

Table of Contents
Smile Book IV
Small Animal Dental Anatomy, Pathology, and Charting
(2004)
Jan Bellows, D.V.M. Diplomate, American Veterinary Dental College
About The Author
Introduction
Dental Charting
Abbreviations
Normal Canine Dental Anatomy
Normal Feline Dental Anatomy
Congenital Dental Pathology
Periodontal Disease
Periodontal Examination
The Traumatized Tooth
Fractured Tooth Classification
Odontoclastic Resorption
Occlusion/Normal
Malocclusion
Benign Oral Masses
Malignant Oral Masses
Glossary
Drug Inserts

Check out the entire
Smile Book Series

 



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Jan Bellows, DVM
All Pets Dental Clinic
17100 Arvida Parkway
Weston, FL 33326
(954) 349-5800
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